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Nepal Agriculture Research Journal
Volume 1 No.1 -1997
Effect of Sowing Time on Incidence and Severity of Major Diseases of Rapeseed-Mustard

B.P. SHARMA
Oilseed Research Program Nepal Agricultural Research Council Nawalpur, Sarlahi

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted during 1992-1994 to evaluate the effect of different dates of sowing on incidence and severity of the major diseases of rapeseed-mustard (Brassica compastris, var. toria) under rainfed condition of Nawalpur, Sarlahi. A toria variety 'Vikas' was sown in 10 different dates starting from Sept. 5 to Dec. 5 at 10 day intervals. The mustard sown on 25 Sept. and 5 Oct. showed low severity (13-22%) of Alternaria blight (Alternaria brassicae), complete escape of downy mildew (Peronospora parasitica) and powdery mildew, (Erysiphe cruciferarum) and partial escape of white rust (Albugo candida). Seed yields 703 and 804 kg/ha obtained form those two dates were found significantly higher than those obtained from other seeding dates. Incidences and severities of diseases increased gradually in successive sowing dates.

Key words: Alternaria blight, downey mildew, Mustard diseases, powdery mildew, white rust.

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Pigeon Pea Based Intercropping System in Western Terai of Nepal

C.L. PAUDEL
Regional Agicultural Research Station Nepal Agriculture Research Council , Khajura, Banke

ABSTRACT

A field experiment of pigeon pea based intercropping system was conducted at the Regional Agriculture Research Station, Nepalgunj during 1991-92 and 1992-93 seasons with objectives to find out the effect of different inter-crop species on pigeon pea productivity and to develop profitable intercropping system for the rainfed upland areas of land. The experiment was conducted in Randomized Complete Block Design with sole pigeon pea and other crops and their combinations. The yield and yield components of pigeon pea were not affected by intercrops and the pigeon pea/maize intercropping in 1:1 ratio gave the highest monetary return and land equivalent ratio (LER) of 1.53. The yield advantage was more in intercropping than all sole systems, though the pigeon pea yield was reduced when it was intercropped with rice

Key words: Intercropping, pigeon pea cultivation, land equivalent ratio, sole crops

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Lesion Scores of Chickens Given Different Number of Eimeria Necatrix Oocysts

R. BHURTEL
Swine and Avian Research Program Khumaltar, Lalitpur

S.A. EDGER
Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama, USA

ABSTRACT

This study was undertaken to observe the lesion scores of chickens were given different number of oocysts of Eimeria necatrix. Maximum severity in chickens was observed with Eimeria necatrix infection at 120 to 144 hours, with 100,000 or 200,000 oocysts (severe infection) per bird and at 168 hours when chickens had 20,000 oocysts (mild infection) per bird. Severe infection caused acute hemorrhage enteritis. Lesions were uniformly distributed throughout the length of the small intestines, but the middle portion showed the greater involvement. At 144 hours postinoculation the intestine became "ballooned" and was congested and edematous in appearance. The thickness of the intestinal walls increased to more than double the normal size. A few trophozoites and schizonts were found in proventiculum and gizzard probably due to reverse peristalsis. The swelling and excessive thickness disappeared by 192 hours. The intestinal tract looked dehydrated but no scars were seen in emaciated survivors. In case of mild infection, the petechiae and white spots accompanied by hemorrhages were most pronounced at 168 hours postinoculation. The serosa of intestines had a spotted appearance. White spots were intermingled with bright or dull red petechiae of various sizes and mostly present in the middle portion of the small intestine which was swollen like a balloon, but swelling decreased as petechiae disappeared. The intestinal wall became thicker than normal. Yellow tinged exudate was present in the intestinal contents, which was streaked with small hemorrhages. At 192 hours the intestine looked almost normal. The changes seen in infected chickens were very constant and striking,.

Key words: Eimeria necatrix, protozoan, oocysts
Part of the unpublished M.S. thesis (1982), Research conducted at Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama, USA.

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Comparative Growth Study of Indigenous Fish Species Mahseer, Katle and Asla Fed With Local Feed Ingredients

A.K. RAI and A.K. RANA
Nepal Agricultural Research Council, Fisheries Research Division, Godawary, Lalitpur

K. R. BASTOLA
Nepal Agricultural Research Council, Fisheries Research Center, Trishuli, Nuwakot

ABSTRACT

Three indigenous local fish species Mahseer, Katle and Asla (Chuche & Buche) were studied for about 10 months by feeding local feed ingredients and compared their growths. Among the three species Mahseer and Asla (Buche) showed better growth (.05g/day) and followed by Katle (0.03g/day) and Asla (Chuche) (0.02g/day) respectively.

Key words: Biology, ingredients, fish species.

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Storability of Some Promising Potato Cultivars under Diffused Lightstorage (DLS) Condition

B.B. KHATRI and D.N. OJHA
Potato Research Program, Nepal Agriculture Research Council, Khumaltar, Lalitpur.

ABSTRACT

The storability of eleven different Potato cultivars was assessed under diffused light storage (DLS) system. The growth and yield performance of the stored tubers were determined under field condition. Field performance in warm environment of locally multiplied seed stored under DLS indicates that cold-storage is not always necessary. Among the eleven clones, only CIP 800936 and Kufri Dewa had good storage quality under diffused light condition for 3.5 months with <1.0 cm long size sprout and nominal weight losses of tubers. Seeds of all tested clones stored in the DLS were equally good as Kufri Jyoti for next planting season.

Key words: Cultivar, diffused light, potato, storability, temperature

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Effect of Promising Rice Genotypes on Leaf Blast Disease Progression

B. CHAUDHARY
Agriculture Research Station, Rampur, Chitwan D.N. SAH Pakhribas Agricultural Research Center, Dhankuta

ABSTRACT

Nine promising rice genotypes in 1993 and six in 1994 were evaluated for resistance to blast disease (Pyricularia grisea) at the Agriculture Research Station, Rampur, Chitwan. Of the genotypes, three were found promising with respect to leaf blast resistance in both years. Others had faster disease development and had higher terminal disease severities. Among the genotypes tested, AS 781-1 and NR 601-18-1-2, which were promising also in grain yield point of view, showed significantly slower disease progress and lower terminal disease severities. Thus, the genotypes need to be promoted for cultivation under disease prone areas in the country.

Keywords: Blast, Pyricularia grisea, partial resistance, rate reducing, resistance, slow blasting.

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Traditional Feeding Practices for Pigs in the Koshi Hills

N. P. SHRESTHA, I. K. ARYAL and H. B. GURUNG
Pakhribas Agricultural Center, Dhankuta C/o BAPSO, P.O. Box 106 Kathmandu, Nepal

ABSTRACT

A study was conducted to understand the traditional feeding practices of pigs in the four Koshi hill Districts (Dhankuta, Tehrathum, Sankhuwasbha and Bhojpur) of Nepal. A total of 44 pig keeping farmers were randomly selected and interviewed. A structured questionnaire was prepared to find out feeding management practices, type of feed and estimated quantity of feed provided to the pigs. Fifty nine percent respondent farmers stall fed their pigs throughout the year, whereas, 41 per cent scavenge the pigs during the dry winter (January to April). Average daily dry matter (DM) supplied to pigs was 2.21 kg, ranging from 1.29 to 5.08 kg. However, 52 per cent of the respondent farmers fed below this average value. Crop by-products, green vegetables, and weeds, and brewery residues were the major portion of the pig diet contributing 72, 17.5 and 10.5 per cent of the daily ration of pigs, respectively. Shortage of green vegetables and weeds during the dry season may cause poor growth and maintenance of pigs, as vegetables and weeds supply are an important contribution of the pig diet. Surplus production of local vegetables including pumpkin (Cucurbita sp.), eskush (Schium edule), colocasia (Colocasia esculanta) are important for feeding pigs during the dry season.

Key words: Pig feeding , feed ingredients.

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Management Study on Seed Potato Production Using Two Alternative Planting Materials under Greenhouse Condition

B.B. KHATRI
Potato Research Program, Nepal Agriculture Resarch Council, Khumaltar, Lalitpur

ABSTRACT

Z.N. GANGA Benguet State University, La Trinidad, Philippines ABSTRACT This study was conducted in response to the costly and often unavailable seed tubers for growing potatoes. Microtubers and minitubers were used as alternative planting materials of varieties `Granola' and `Monta��'. Results showed that the tuberlet size significantly affected plant height and canopy cover. Larger the tubers planted, the higher the percentage emergence and more number of main stems per plant counted. The number and weight of tuberlets produced were also highly dependent on the size of the micro- and minitubers planted. The bigger the tubers planted, the larger were the tuberlets produced. Higher number of tuberlets were obtained from closer spacings. Planting small tubers generally resulted in higher multiplication ratio of smaller tuberlets, but required careful management.

Findings indicate that the minitubers rather than microtubers should be provided to the farmers as the basic planting material at least where the farmers need clean seed stock and cannot afford proper management of delicate materials. Tuberlet production under greenhouse condition is particularly more suitable and important as the planting materials than the microtubers and stem cuttings which are provided directly to the farmers. Minitubers produced may thus reduce the risk of poor crop establishment and favors better crop stand in the farmers' field.

Key words: Degeneration, physiological age , potato, Solanum tuberosum L..

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Effect of 1H-indole-3-butanoic acid on rooting of hardwood cuttings of apple rootstocks at Kirtipur

MUKUNDA RANJIT
Potato Research Program (NARC)/SDC-N, Khumaltar, Lalitpur

RAMITA MANANDHAR
Department of Agriculture Development, Pulchowk, Lalitpur

ABSTRACT

Treatment of hardwood cuttings with different concentrations of 1H-indole-3-butanoic acid (IBA) indicate that IBA at 50 mg/l resulted in optimum rooting percentage (62.02) whereas at 100 mg/l it resulted in optimum number of roots per rooted cutting (2.40) and longest root (3.70 cm). Among the rootstocks tried, Malus prunifolia had the highest rooting percentage of 63.0 % followed by M25 (43.5 %), MM 106 (38.0 %) and MM 109 (35.3 %). The numbers of roots per rooted cutting for the four cultivars are 3.90, 1.05, 1.03 and 0.75 while the average lengths of roots are 8.44, 0.41, 0.61 and 0.13 cms respectively.

Keywords: Apple, IBA , propagation, rootstock

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Traditional Feeding Practices for Pigs in the Koshi Hills

N. P. SHRESTHA, I. K. ARYAL and H. B. GURUNG
Pakhribas Agricultural Center, Dhankuta C/o BAPSO, P.O. Box 106 Kathmandu, Nepal

ABSTRACT

A study was conducted to understand the traditional feeding practices of pigs in the four Koshi hill Districts (Dhankuta, Tehrathum, Sankhuwasbha and Bhojpur) of Nepal. A total of 44 pig keeping farmers were randomly selected and interviewed. A structured questionnaire was prepared to find out feeding management practices, type of feed and estimated quantity of feed provided to the pigs. Fifty nine percent respondent farmers stall fed their pigs throughout the year, whereas, 41 per cent scavenge the pigs during the dry winter (January to April). Average daily dry matter (DM) supplied to pigs was 2.21 kg, ranging from 1.29 to 5.08 kg. However, 52 per cent of the respondent farmers fed below this average value. Crop by-products, green vegetables, and weeds, and brewery residues were the major portion of the pig diet contributing 72, 17.5 and 10.5 per cent of the daily ration of pigs, respectively. Shortage of green vegetables and weeds during the dry season may cause poor growth and maintenance of pigs, as vegetables and weeds supply are an important contribution of the pig diet. Surplus production of local vegetables including pumpkin (Cucurbita sp.), eskush (Schium edule), colocasia (Colocasia esculanta) are important for feeding pigs during the dry season.

Key words: Pig feeding , feed ingredients.

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Heritability of Chilling Tolerance in Rice During Germination and Plumule Greening

B.R. STHAPIT
Lumle Agricultural Research Center, P.O. Box 1, Pokhara, Kaski.

J.R. WITCOMBE
University of Wales, Bangor, Gwynedd LL572UW, U. K

ABSTRACT

Treatment of hardwood cuttings with different concentrations of 1H-indole-3-butanoic acid (IBA) indicate that IBA at 50 mg/l resulted in optimum rooting percentage (62.02) whereas at 100 mg/l it resulted in optimum number of roots per rooted cutting (2.40) and longest root (3.70 cm). Among the rootstocks tried, Malus prunifolia had the highest rooting percentage of 63.0 % followed by M25 (43.5 %), MM 106 (38.0 %) and MM 109 (35.3 %). The numbers of roots per rooted cutting for the four cultivars are 3.90, 1.05, 1.03 and 0.75 while the average lengths of roots are 8.44, 0.41, 0.61 and 0.13 cms respectively.

Keywords: Apple, IBA , propagation, rootstock

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Evaluation of Different Genotypes of Crossbred Native Hill Cattle with Foreign Sire Breeds for Milk Production, Reproduction and Growth Performances

N.P. SHRESTHA and B.S. SHRESTHA
Animal Breeding Division

H.R. SHRESTHA
Bovine Research Program Nepal Agriculture Research Council, Khumaltar, Lalitpur

ABSTRACT

This study was undertaken to determine the suitability of different genotypes of crossbred cattle in Khumaltar Research Farm. Lactational milk yield was significantly affected by the genotypes (p<0.001). The least square means of milk yield of 75% Brownswiss was the highest (2631.6?152 kg.) followed by 75% Ayreshire ( 2478?318 kg.) and 75% Jersey (1945.9?131 kg.). The 50% Ayreshire yielded 2163?95 kg. milk followed by 50% Holstein (1882?86 kg.) and 50% Jersey (1796?136 kg.). 50% Brownswiss yielded the lowest milk (1625?89 kg.) among all the 50% crossbreeds. For three crossbred types viz. Brownswiss, Ayreshire and Jersey, 3/4 grade of the crossbred were superior to 1/2 grade in terms of milk production. The age at first service was also found significantly affected by the genotypes. (p<0.05).). The overall calving interval of 75% Jersey was the lowest (443.1?50.89 days) and that of 75% Ayreshire was the highest (652?152 days). The birth weight of calves were not significantly different for the sex, but differed with the genotypes (p<0.001). The birth weight of 75% Brownswiss was the highest (26.11?0.89 kg) and that of 50% Ayreshire was the lowest (16.55?0.89 kg.).

Key words: Calving, calving interval , crossbreed, genotype, lactation.

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Effect of Black Point Disease on Yield and Quality of Wheat Seed

P.B. SHAKYA
Seed Research Section , Agriculture Botany Division Nepal Agriculture Research Council Khumaltar, Lalitpur

ABSTRACT

The effect of black point disease (Drechslera sorokiniana) on seed yield and quality of seeds of wheat variety Annapurna-1 was studied at Khumaltar during 1992 and 1993 wheat seasons. The study was focussed to find out the effectiveness of Vitavax-200 in producing healthy and high quality wheat seeds. Wheat seed treated with Vitavax-200 at the rate of 3.0 g/kg seed was found promising in lessening the infection by the seed borne organisms and producing good quality and high seed yields and grain weights.

Key words: Quality seeds, seed borne disease, seed treatment,.

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